Tech Republic (CNET) posted a list of "Top 20 PC Technology Innovations." I agree with six of the twenty (below these 6 is my own list)
- 7) Hayes Smartmodem (1981) - The gateway to the Internet in the pre-broadband era, although the real secret sauce was the Hayes command set
- 11) MP3 (1991) - The ONLY universally supported music format to date.
- 12) Mouse (1963) - From Xerox to Apple to the world, it revolutionized usability.
- 13) 802.11b (1999) - The first successful move to totally wire-free adequate data transmission.
- ... and I can agree with (1) USB (1996) - "Bought in several concepts such as drawing power, swapping of devices without shutting down PC, and to this day is the killer of port woes." - anybody that spent hours, days, weeks, during the 1980s, on the phone with a co-worker or a friend trying to get the start bits, stop bits and parity bits right will know what we mean. Anyone who doesn't, is fortunate not to know what he or she missed!
And, although they are not specifically PC related, I would also add TCP/IP, the Web, AltaVista (the first great search engine, from the late great Digital Equipment Corp - pre-Google) and Apple's iPhone because all of them were disruptive. I don't think the next x86 or graphics chips qualify. Nor does the Sound Blaster, since it simply fixes a basic deficiency of early PCs. IMHO.
But, since we're talking about personal computing, what about:
- Apple II (1977) - The Apple II was first consumer/pro-sumer personal computer and used the first consumer floppy disk drives (as opposed to tape) and Apple DOS, its disk operating system.
- BASIC (1963) - Although it pre-dates the microprocessor and the personal computer, the Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code made personal computers accessible to applications programmers that didn't want to learn machine language.
- CP/M Control Program/Monitor (1974) - First microcomputer operating system. CP/M was the model for MS-DOS and Microsoft's first casualty. The story of CP/M's inventor is sad indeed. But for years, CP/M and its multi-user counterpart MP/M were king.
- VisiCalc (1979) - The first electronic spreadsheet, which instantly transformed the personal computer from a hobbyist toy to a powerful business machine and propelled Apple to stardom. VisiCalc spawned an army of imitators, including Microsoft MultiPlan (later, Excel), Lotus 1-2-3 and SuperCalc
- Adobe PostScript (1983) - A mathematically-based page description language that made graphical electronic publishing and universal electronic document interchange possible.
- Adobe Acrobat (1993) - The standard electronic document interchange format, now used universally, worldwide. Also, "PDF" has become a verb - which is a sure sign that Acrobat has been pretty influential!
- Hypertext (1962) - The origin of hyperlinking on the Web, first commercialized in Apple's HyperCard in 1987.
- VisiOn (1983) - was the first graphical environment for the IBM PC. It preceded Apple's Lisa by a year, the Mac by two and Windows by nearly three.
- PageMaker (1985) - Developed by Aldus Corporation for the Macintosh, PageMaker was the first page layout program for personal computers. Coupled with Apple's LaserWriter and Adobe PostScript, PageMaker was a viable alternative to proprietary workstations costing hundreds of thousands of dollars. It was the spark that ignited the conversion of the entire publishing business from print-based to electronic and spelled the end of typesetting once and for all.
- Apple LaserWriter (1985) - Although H-P introduced the LaserJet a year earlier, the LaserWriter was the first PostScript-based laser printer for personal computers, while the original LaserJet PCL language was essentially a series of escape-code instructions to print text-only.
- Compaq Portable (1983) - First portable computer running MS-DOS
- WordStar (1978) - WordStar was the first mainstream microcomputer word processing software, designed to run under CP/M)
- Adobe Photoshop (1990) - Photoshop has become an entire industry. Like "PDF," "Photoshop" has become a verb.
- TeleCompaq (1985) - First personal computer with integrated telephony
- Grid Compass (1982) - First portable computer in a form-factor recognizable today as a laptop.
The list of Great Imitators
- Apple Macintosh PowerBook (1991) - Although it was preceded by the Mac Portable and the Grid Compass, the PowerBook was the first mass-market laptop.
- Apple Macintosh computer and MacOS operating system (1984) - First mass market desktop computer integrated with a Graphical User Interface and operating environment. Yes, Apple's Lisa and Xerox' ALTO preceded it, but the Mac remains available today.
- Microsoft Windows (1985) - From a financial point of view, Windows may be one of the most successful computing products ever, but it was a so-so overlay on top of MS-DOS and even now, 22 years on, it still doesn't work. And why, in 2007, do we need Wizards?
- The IBM PC, Radio Shack TRS-80 and other desktops post-Apple II.
- MS-DOS (1981) - Microsoft founders Bill Gates and Paul Allen were in a battle against Gary Kildall, inventor of CP/M, to be the supplier of the IBM PC's operating system. Microsoft had nothing, so the boys bought QDOS from Seattle Computer Products and underbid Kildall to capture IBM's business.
OK, the Top 100 list that this Top 10 quoted from did include the Mac, the Compaq Portable and Photoshop. But if they're including games, why did they miss Myst? And what's with DirectX and not OpenGL? Mosaic, and not the Web or Hypertext (and HyperCard)? Oh well...